# Mechanisms of inactivation of the tumour suppressor gene RHOA in colorectal cancer

• , , , , , , , , , (2005) SMAD4 as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 11: 2606–2611.

• , , , , , , , , , , (2005) SMAD4 levels and response to 5-fluorouracil in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 11: 6311–6316.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2005) Gene-expression profiling predicts recurrence in Dukes’ C colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 129: 874–884.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2015) highly expressed genes in rapidly proliferating tumor cells as new targets for colorectal cancer treatment. Clin Cancer Res 21: 3695–3704.

• , , , , (2010) Comprehensive modeling of microRNA targets predicts functional non-conserved and non-canonical sites. Genome Biol 11: R90.

• , , , , (2016) MIR-183 functions as an oncogene by targeting ABCA1 in colon cancer. Oncol Rep 35: 2873–2879.

• , (2000) Linking colorectal cancer to Wnt signaling. Cell 103: 311–320.

• , , , , , , , , , (2012) MicroRNA-155 functions as a negative regulator of RhoA signaling in TGF-beta-induced endothelial to mesenchymal transition. MicroRNA 1: 2–10.

• , , , , , , , , , (2015) Upregulation of RHOA and NKIRAS1 genes in lung tumors is associated with loss of their methylation as well as with methylation of regulatory miRNA genes. Biochem 80: 483–494.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2014) Comparative sequencing analysis reveals high genomic concordance between matched primary and metastatic colorectal cancer lesions. Genome Biol 15: 454.

• , , , , , (2013) TGF-β: an emerging player in drug resistance. Cell Cycle 12: 2960–2968.

• Cancer Genome Atlas Network (2012) Comprehensive molecular characterization of human colon and rectal cancer. Nature 487: 330–337.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , (2010) Deciphering the transcriptional complex critical for RhoA gene expression and cancer metastasis. Nat Cell Biol 12: 457–467.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2016) MicroRNA-20a-5p promotes colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis by downregulating Smad4. Oncotarget 7(29): 45199–45213.

• , , , , , , , , , (2013) Inhibition of BET bromodomain targets genetically diverse glioblastoma. Clin Cancer Res 19: 1748–1759.

• , , , (2012) MicroRNA and colorectal cancer. Dig Liver Dis 44: 195–200.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2011) BET bromodomain inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to target c-Myc. Cell 146: 904–917.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , (1996) MADR2 maps to 18q21 and encodes a TGFbeta-regulated MAD-related protein that is functionally mutated in colorectal carcinoma. Cell 86: 543–552.

• , , , (2013) Colorectal cancer and RASSF family-a special emphasis on RASSF1A. Int J Cancer 132: 251–258.

• , , , , , , (2001) Myc represses the p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter and interacts with Sp1/Sp3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 4510–4515.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2016) Genomic correlates of immune-cell infiltrates in colorectal carcinoma. Cell Rep 15: 857–865.

• , , , , , , , , , , , (1998) Mutations in the SMAD4/DPC4 gene in juvenile polyposis. Science 280: 1086–1088.

• , , , , , , , , , (2013) MicroRNA-200c modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human colorectal cancer metastasis. Gut 62: 1315–1326.

• , , , , , (1999) An essential part for Rho-associated kinase in the transcellular invasion of tumor cells. Nat Med 5: 221–225.

• , , , , , , (2014) MicroRNA 340 is involved in UVB-induced dendrite formation through the regulation of RhoA expression in melanocytes. Mol Cell Biol 34: 3407–3420.

• , , , , (1994) c-Myc represses transcription in vivo by a novel mechanism dependent on the initiator element and Myc box II. EMBO J 13: 4070–4079.

• , , , , , , , (2011) MiR-185 targets RhoA and Cdc42 expression and inhibits the proliferation potential of human colorectal cells. Cancer Lett 301: 151–160.

• , , , (1994) Loss of Apc+ in intestinal adenomas from min mice. Cancer Res 54: 5947–5952.

• , , (2009) Wnt/beta-catenin signaling: components, mechanisms, and diseases. Dev Cell 17: 9–26.

• , , (1999) NME6: a new member of the nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase gene family located on human chromosome 3p21.3. Hum Genet 104: 454–459.

• , , , , (2005) The role of TGF-beta and Wnt signaling in gastrointestinal stem cells and cancer. Oncogene 24: 5775–5789.

• , , (1990) A dominant mutation that predisposes to multiple intestinal neoplasia in the mouse. Science 247: 322–324.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2014) Colorectal cancer cell lines are representative models of the main molecular subtypes of primary cancer. Cancer Res 74: 3238–3247.

• , , (2001) Smad regulation in TGF-β signal transduction. J Cell Sci 114: 4359–4369.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2014) Recurrent mutations in epigenetic regulators, RHOA and FYN kinase in peripheral T cell lymphomas. Nat Genet 46: 166–170.

• , , , , , , (1995) Microsatellite instability and mutations of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor gene in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 55: 5548–5550.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2014) RHOA inactivation enhances Wnt signalling and promotes colorectal cancer. Nat Commun 5: 5458.

• , (2002) RHO-GTPases and cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2: 133–142.

• , , , , , , , , , (2007) Myc deletion rescues Apc deficiency in the small intestine. Nature 446: 676–679.

• , , , , , , , , , , , (2004) Loss of Apc in vivo immediately perturbs Wnt signaling, differentiation, and migration. Genes Dev 18: 1385–1390.

• , , (2002) Myc suppression of the p21(Cip1) Cdk inhibitor influences the outcome of the p53 response to DNA damage. Nature 419: 729–734.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2012) Recurrent R-spondin fusions in colon cancer. Nature 488: 660–664.

• , , , (2010) Myc interacts with Max and Miz1 to repress C/EBPdelta promoter activity and gene expression. Mol Cancer 9: 92.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2017) ODZ1 allows glioblastoma to sustain invasiveness through a Myc-dependent transcriptional upregulation of RhoA. Oncogene 36: 1733–1744.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2016) Dual targeting of bromodomain and extraterminal domain proteins, and WNT or MAPK signaling, inhibits c-MYC expression and proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 15: 1217–1226.

• Tsankov AM, Gu H, Akopian V, Ziller MJ, Donaghey J, Amit I, Gnirke A, Meissner A (2015) Transcription factor binding dynamics during human ES cell differentiation. Nature 518: 344–349.

• , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2002) The B-catenin/TCF-4 complex imposes a crypt progenitor phenotype on colorectal cancer cells. Cell 111: 241–250.

• , , , , , , , , , , , (2015) MiR-200b/200c/429 subfamily negatively regulates Rho/ROCK signaling pathway to suppress hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis. Oncotarget 6: 13658–13670.

• , , , (2012) NPRL2 gene expression in the progression of colon tumors. Genet Mol Res 11: 4810–4816.

• , , , (2014) RhoA mutations identified in diffuse gastric cancer. Cancer Cell 26: 9–11.